According to usage, biomass boilers are divided into two types: biomass thermal boilers and biomass electric boilers. In fact, the principle of the two is basically the same, both of which obtain energy by burning biomass fuel, but the first one directly obtains heat energy, and the second one convert’s heat energy into electrical energy. Among the two types of boilers, the first one is the most widely used and the technology is relatively mature.
Biomass boilers can be divided into three categories:
- Small biomass heat boilers. This type of boiler uses solidified or gasified biomass fuel to provide thermal energy in the form of hot water. Its advantages are small size, simple structure, and low price. The disadvantage is that it has large energy loss, large fuel consumption, and low heat energy supply, unable to meet users with large heat demand, this type of boiler targets heating and domestic hot water supply for single-family rural households.
- Medium-sized biomass heat boilers. This type of boiler mainly uses solidified biomass fuel to provide hot water or steam. Its advantages are relatively mature technology, small energy loss, and strong heat energy supply capacity; the disadvantage is that some boiler fuel is cooked, and the supporting design is unreasonable.
- Large biomass heat boilers. There is no actual product for this type of boiler. The main reason is that the existing technology is not perfect, and the national policy for biomass to replace coal is not perfect, so it only stays in concept. It emphasizes a centralized management and centralized control of thermal energy projects. The boiler is only one of the equipment to ensure the normal operation of the entire biomass thermal energy project. Therefore, it requires fuel, combustion technology, supporting technology, and related policy requirements.
According to the shape, it can be divided into solid molding fuel, liquid fuel and gas fuel. The most widely used is biomass solid fuel.
Biomass solid shaped fuel is a new type of economical and environmentally friendly fuel. It is made of agricultural and forestry wastes such as straw, rice husks, branches, sawdust, and wood through a series of processes. Compared with the other two forms of biomass fuel, solid shaped fuel Biomass fuel has the advantages of low price, convenient storage and high safety.
Biomass liquid fuel is referred to as biomass fuel oil. Its raw materials come from poultry manure, industrial organic waste water, municipal solid waste, etc. Biomass fuel oil can replace diesel, heavy oil and natural gas, and is directly used in industrial boiler combustion and direct combustion of various industrial kilns; after reprocessing, it can replace gasoline and diesel and used in transportation fields such as automobiles and ships.
Biomass gas fuel is generally used for biomass biogas, biomass synthesis gas, gasoline and diesel.
Biomass boilers conform to the current general trend of energy conservation, emission reduction, low carbon and environmental protection, and are an effective form of resource utilization. Zhongzhen has developed a large boiler suitable for straw biomass, which avoids or solves the problems of ash and slagging during biomass combustion and heat exchange. The emission of flue gas meets the relevant national environmental protection standards. The low carbon content of the ash and slag can realize the comprehensive utilization of fly ash.